GRADES NINE AND TEN

English-Language Arts Standards

 

Reading

 

Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accordingly.

 

Vocabulary and Concept Development

 

1.0   Word analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

 

1.1 Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and understand word derivations.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.2 Distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and interpret the connotative power of words.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.3 Identify Greek, Roman, and Norse mythology and the use the knowledge to understand the origin and meaning of new words.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

Students read and understand grade- level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced. The selections in Recommended Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve (California Department of Education, 1990) illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade twelve, students read two million words annually on their own, including a wide variety of classics and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online information. In grade nine and ten, students make substantial progress toward this goal.  

 

The grade-level-appropriate materials must be made available in Braille to Braille readers in a timely manner.

 

Structural Features of Informational Materials

 

2.1 Analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve their purposes.

Braille Standard

Using tactile graphics and transcriber’s notes, analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the feature to achieve their purpose.

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

Standard 13 - Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

Standard 24 - Apply appropriate interviewing techniques

CSB Activities

 

2.2 Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

 

Comprehension and Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

 

2.3 Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched. 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above. 

SEACO

Standard 10 - Ask and Answer questions about essential elements of a text.

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification and understanding

CSB Activities

 

2.4  Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing with a single issue; paraphrase sources and related topics to demonstrate comprehension. 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.5   Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration. 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.6 Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical directions (e.g., those found with graphic calculators and specialized software programs and in access guides to World Wide Web site on the Internet).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

Standard 16 - Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and basic computer terminology.

CSB Activities

 

Expository Critique

 

2.7  Critique the logic of functional documents by examining the sequence of information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 11 - Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and their influence of each.

CSB Activities

 

2.8:  Evaluate the credibility of an author’s argument or defense of a claim by critiquing the relationship between generalizations and evidence, the comprehensiveness of evidence, and the way in which the author’s intent affects the structure and tone of the text (e.g., professional journals, editorials, political speeches, primary source material).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO N/A

CSB Activities

 

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

 

Students read and respond to historically culturally works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct in-depth analyses recurrent patterns and themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

 

Structural Features of Literature

 

3.1 Articulate the relationship between the expressed purposes and the characteristics of different forms of dramatic literature (e.g., comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue). 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

3.2 Compare and contrast the presentation of a similar theme or topic across genres to explain how the selection of genre shapes the theme or topic.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

3.3 Analyze interactions between main and subordinate characters in a literary text (e.g., internal and external conflicts, motivations, relationships, influences) and explain the way those interactions affect the plot.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

3.4 Determine the characters' traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, dramatic monologue, or soliloquy

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

3.5 Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the ideas expressed in each work.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

3.6 Analyze and trace an author's development of time and sequence, including the use of complex literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing and flashbacks).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

3.7 Recognize and understand the significance of various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory, and symbolism, and explain their appeal.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

3.8 Interpret and evaluate the impact of ambiguities, subtleties, contradictions, ironies, incongruities in a text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

3.9 Explain how voice, persona, and the choice of a narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

3.10 Identify and describe the function of dialogue, scene design, soliloquies, asides, and character foils in dramatic literature.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

 Literary Criticism

3.11 Evaluate the aesthetic qualities of style, including the impact of diction and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme using the terminology of literary criticism (Aesthetic approach).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

3.12 Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period (Historical approach).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

 Writing

1.0 Writing Strategies

Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

 

Organization and Focus

1.1 Establish a controlling impression or coherent thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing. 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.2 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Research and Technology

 

1.3  Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g. library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources. 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

Standard 16- Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology.

CSB Activities

 

1.4 Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.5   Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents).

Braille Standard

Synthesize information from multiple sources, using braille, optical aids, recorded aids, and electronic aids, and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents, and on-line resources).

SEACO:   N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.6  Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.7  Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., The Modern Language Association Handbook or The Chicago Manual of Style).

 Braille Standard

 Locate, acquire, and use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., braille samples of the Modern Language Association Handbook or The Chicago Manual of Style).

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities: None that apply

 

1.8  Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and graphic programs.

 Braille Standard

Design and publish print and braille documents that are correctly formatted by using advanced publishing software and graphic programs

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Evaluation and Revision

1.9  Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose and formality of the context.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

 

Using the writing strategies of grades nine and ten outlined in Writing Standard 1.0 students effectively use braillewriters. Braille notetakers, notebook computers, screen readers, brailleprint translation softwear, scanners, printers, and Braille embossers. Students:

 

2.1 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories:

 

a. Relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events to the audience.

 

b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.

 

c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters’ feelings.

 

d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood.

 

e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 10 - Ask and answer questions about essential elements of a text.

Standard 11 - Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each.

Standard 20 - Describe people, places, things, locations, and actions.

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequence

·        identify next event in a sequence (FPI 23.2)

·         respond to question about events or experiences (FPI 23.3)

·        recount events of past experiences in logical, sequential order (FPI 23.4)

CSB Activities

 

2.2  Write responses to literature

 

a. Demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works.

 

b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or other works.

 

c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

 

d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.3  Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports: 

 

a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on relevant perspectives.

 

b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently.

 

c. Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.

 

d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs.

 

e. Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.

 

f. Use technical terms and notations accurately. 

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.4  Write persuasive compositions:

 

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion.

 

b. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical beliefs; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy).

 

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinion, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning.

 

d. Address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.5  Write business letters:

 

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately.

 

b. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients.

 

c. Highlight central ideas or images.

 

d. Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that that contribute to the documents' reliability and impact.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.6  Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behaviors for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting):

 

a. Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly.

 

b. Offer detailed and accurate specifications.

 

c. Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e. g., troubleshooting guide).

 

d. Anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Written and Oral English Language Conventions

The standards for oral and written English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

 

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English.

 

Grammar and Mechanics of Writing

1.1 Identify and correctly use clauses, phrases and mechanics of punctuation.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.2  Understand sentence construction

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.3  Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage and control of grammar, paragraph, and sentence structure, diction and syntax.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Manuscript Form

1.4 Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:   N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.5  Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with direct citations.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:   N/A

CSB Activities

 

Listening and Speaking

1.0  Listening and Speaking Strategies

Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations of their own that convey clear and distinct perspectives and solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose.  

 

Comprehension 

1.1 Formulate judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those judgments with convincing evidence.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

1.2  Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres cover the same event.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO  

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information

CSB Activities

 

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

1.3  Choose logical patterns of organization to inform and to persuade, by soliciting agreement or action, or to unite audiences behind a common belief or cause.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 19 - Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent, sentences.

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

CSB Activities

 

1.4 Choose appropriate techniques for developing the introduction and conclusion (e.g., by using literary quotations, anecdotes, references to authoritative sources).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 19 - Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent, sentences.

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

CSB Activities

 

1.5 Recognize and use elements of classical speech forms (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, conclusion) in formulating rational arguments and applying the art of persuasion and debate.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

1.6 Advance and present a clear thesis statement and choose appropriate types of proof (e.g., statistics, testimony, specific instances) that meet standard tests for evidence, including credibility, validity, and relevance.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

1.7 Use props, visual aids, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and accuracy of presentations.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.8 Produce concise notes for extemporaneous delivery.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.9 Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience and choose effective verbal and nonverbal techniques

Braille Standard

Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience and choose effective verbal and nonverbal techniques (e.g. voice, gestures, facing the audience) for presentations

SEACO

Standard 19 - Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent, sentences.

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

CSB Activities

 

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications

 

1.10 Analyze historically significant speeches (e.g., Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address", Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream") to find the rhetorical devices and features that make them memorable.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.11 Assess how language and delivery affect the mood and tone of the oral communication and make an impact on the audience.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.12 Evaluate the clarity, quality, effectiveness, and general coherence of a speaker's important points, arguments, evidence, organization of ideas, delivery, diction, and syntax.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

1.13 Analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion, and logic.

Braille Standard

Same as state Content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

1.14 Identify the aesthetic effects of a media presentation and evaluate the techniques used to create them (e.g., compare Shakespeare's Henry V with Kenneth Branagh's 1990 film version)

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

2.0  Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

 

Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine the traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Students speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0

 

2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:

 

a. Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.

 

b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.

 

c. Describe with correct sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of characters.

 

d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate time or mood changes.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

2.2 Deliver expository presentations:

 

a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives.

 

b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently.

 

c. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

 

d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and display information.

 

e. Anticipate and address the listener's potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

2.3 Apply appropriate interviewing techniques:

 

a. Prepare and ask relevant questions.

 

b. Make notes of responses.

 

c. Use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect.

 

d. Respond correctly and effectively to questions.

 

e. Demonstrate knowledge of the subject or the organization.

 

f. Compile and report responses.

 

g. Evaluate the effectiveness of the interview.

 

Braille Standard

Same as the state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.4 Deliver oral responses to literature:

 

a. Advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of works or passages (i.e., make and support warranted assertions about the text).

 

b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.

 

c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

 

d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

2.5 Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects):

 

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion.

 

b. Use rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., by appeal to logic through reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; by use of personal anecdote, case study, or analogy).

 

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

 

d. Anticipate and address the listener's concerns and counterarguments.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

2.6 Deliver descriptive presentations:

 

a. Establish clearly the speaker's point of view on the subject of the presentation.

 

b. Establish clearly the speaker's relationship with that subject (e.g., dispassionate observation, personal involvement).

 

c. Use effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, and sensory details.

 

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities: N/A

 

 

ACSA Selected Standards for Grade Nine and Ten

Reading

Word Analysis, Fluency, Voc. Dev.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

            9/10.1.1

Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational Materials

            9/10.2.1         

            9/10.2.2

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade Appropriate Text

            9/10.2.3

            9/10.2.6         

Literary Response and Analysis

            9/10.3.3

Writing

Writing Strategies

            9/10.1.2

Research and Technology

            9/10.1.3

            9/10.1.8

Writing Applications

            9/10.2.5

Written and Oral English language Conventions

Grammar and Mechanics of Writing

            9/10.1.3

Manuscript Form

            9/10.1.4

            9/10.1.5