GRADE TWO

English/Language Arts Standards

            

 Reading

 

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

           

Decoding and Word Recognition

 

1.1  Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.

Braille Standard

Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) and corresponding braille contractions when reading.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Alter reading or listening to a favorite story, students spell words from the story that have diphthongs or digraphs. (Academic)

·        Alter reading or listening to a favorite story, students spell words from the story containing unusual vowel sound combinations like ea as in eat, or ou as in enough. (Academic)

·        Teach children to say “diphthongs” and to understand what that means. (Compensatory)

·        Give children a list of words with special vowel spellings and use them in a sentence. (Compensatory)

 

1.2  Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g.,            vowel-consonant-vowel = su/ per; vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel =sup/ per).

Braille Standard

Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., su/per vs. sup/ per) and apply appropriate Braille code rules for syllabication.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        When reading a story to students select familiar words that have syllables. Ask students to clap out the syllables for each word. (Compensatory)

·        Given a list of words from familiar stories, students count the number of syllables in each word. Ask students to categorize the words that have the most syllables and the fewest syllables. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Give children a list of simple, familiar two syllable words and show them how to write the words in syllables. (Academic)

·        Play word games matching first and second syllables from two lists. Make real words and nonsense words. (Compensatory/Social Interaction)

 

1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A 

CSB Activities

·        Students will decode a list of two syllable functional words (e.g., bathroom, driveway, classroom) (Academic/Compensatory)

·        When given a list of one and two syllable words, students will identify the two syllable words. (Compensatory)

·        Read Dr. Seuss stories and listen for nonsense words. (Compensatory/Social))

·        Play games with teams making up nonsense two syllable words. (Compensatory/Social))

 

1.4 Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

 Standard 7 - Recognize common abbreviations

·        Identify days of the week/months of the year on a calendar (FPI 7.1)

·        Identify street abbreviations on bus schedules/street maps/street signs (FPI 7.3)

·        Identify titles of people (FPI 7.4)

·        Match abbreviations to whole word (FPI 7.5)

CSB Activities

·        Identify days of week and months of year on a calendar that uses abbreviations in Braille or print (Compensatory)

·        Decode abbreviations used in recipes (e.g. tsp. for teaspoon, pkg. for package) (Compensatory/)

·        Identify titles of people ( e.g., Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs., Dr.) (Compensatory/Social)

·        Teach children the abbreviations used in addresses, such as Ave., CA, and St. (Compensatory/O&M)

 

1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives).

Braille Standard

Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives) and corresponding Braille contractions.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·         Identify words that are singular, and words that are plural (e.g., boy, boys; girl, girls; dog, dogs; man, men; woman, women) Academic/Compensatory)

·        Create an activity where students have to match singular and plural words by using print, Braille or auditory modes. (Compensatory)

·        Make a list of words that end in “y” and practice making them plural by changing the “y” to “’i” and adding “es”. (Academic)

·        Make a list of words that end in “f” and practice making them plural by changing the “f” to ‘”v” and adding “es”. (Academic)

 

1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        In a group setting,  students read familiar stories aloud to classmates and teachers, either in Braille or print (Compensatory/Social)

·        Encourage students to participate in a reading recital where students are encouraged to read print or Braille with fluency and correct intonation. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Read familiar nursery rhymes and poems aloud. (Compensatory)

·        Practice intonation and expression by exaggerating them in games and role plays. (Social/R&L))

 

Vocabulary and Concept Development

 

1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Define and identify antonyms and synonyms Academic)

·        Play a game with students where they have to generate a list of words that are opposites (e.g., yes/no, up/down, hot/cold) (Academic/Social)

·        Have students match words that have the same meanings (e.g., cold/chilly, near/close) (Academic)

·        Make up a treasure hunt in the classroom where opposite words are used for the clues, e.g. “over” really means “under”, etc. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Make word lists in print and braille for all the synonyms the class can think of for particular familiar adjectives. (Compensatory)

 

1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to             predict their meaning.

Braille Standard

Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.

a.    Know and apply appropriate Braille code rules to distinguish between compound words that are written in contracted and in uncontracted Braille. 

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Students identify compound words while being read a story or magazine article by the teacher. (Compensatory)

·        Given a list of unfamiliar functional compound words, students will be able to determine the word by using a hint from the teacher (e.g., these words are all sports words: football, baseball, basketball, goalball) (Compensatory)

·        Give two lists of words that when combined can make compound words. Have children make as many as possible. (Compensatory)

 

1.9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e.g., over-,             un-, -ing, -ly).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Identify simple prefixes (e.g., un, over, be) (Academic)

·        Identify simple suffixes (e.g., ing, ly, ed) (Academic)

·        Practice adding suffixes to familiar words. (Academic)

           

1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Demonstrate understanding of word meanings/relationships (Compensatory)

·        Identify & define words that have multiple meanings (homonyms/homophones) (e.g. here, hear; two, to, too; hi, high) (Academic)

·        Use common homonyms in a sentence and ask students to tell you which form to use. (Academic)

          

 2.0 Reading Comprehension

 

 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They             draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g.,            generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

 

The grade level appropriate materials must be made available in Braille to Braille readers in a timely manner.

 

Structural Features of Informational Materials

 2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate             information in expository text.

Braille Standard

Use titles, volume numbers, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

·         Demonstrate understanding of the unique features of Braille pagination.

·         Explain how Braille page numbering corresponds to print page   numbering  (e.g. Braille page 1, page a1, and page b1 may correspond to print page 1)

·         Find the beginning of a new print page after the separation line in the middle of a braille page.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Identify the title of a book (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Identify the author of a book (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Identify & understand the purpose of the table of contents (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Locate and identify a specific book chapter & page from the table of contents (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Find the places in a book where the title and author are located.

·        Make a class book that includes a table of contents. (Academic/Compensatory)

 

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

 2.2 State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought.)

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Ask students to list reasons to read (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask students to problem solve about: How could we learn more about the life of a fish, frog, plant, or pioneer child?  (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Help students to identify ways to find information (books, articles, encyclopedias, internet searches) (Academic/Compensatory/Technology)

·        Ask students to identify a topic of interest, and assist them in finding information through reading or listening. (R&L/Compensatory)

 

2.3 Use knowledge of the author's purpose(s) to comprehend informational text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Ask students to find answers to specific questions in written material about the topic, including the author's purpose(s) in writing the text. (Academic)

·        In a group setting, read information about a specific topic, and ask students questions about the content of the information.  (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Teach ways to discover the author’s purpose in writing a book, i.e. introduction, pictures, through the library, etc. (Academic/Compensatory)

 

2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask question for clarification and understanding.

·        Ask “Wh” questions for clarification using gestures, actions, voice output device or vocalizations (FPI 22.3)

CSB Activities

·        After reading informational materials to students, ask “Wh” questions for clarification and understanding (Academic/Compensatory)

·        After reading informational materials to students, ask "How" questions to determine if students understand the material being presented (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Be certain students have the concepts or experience that is relevant to understanding the text and asking clarifying questions. (Compensatory)

 

2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

·        Identify next event in a sequence (FPI 23.2)

CSB Activities

·        Using K-2 literature and informational texts, read to students. Ask each student to recall a specific fact or piece of information from the book or article being read. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask students to sequence the details of a story or informational text. Students should be able to determine what comes first, next, and last. (Academic/Compensatory)

          

2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·        Ask students to describe their own experiences where cause and effect occurred (e.g., the student fell off the swing and cut her knee) (Compensatory/DLS)

·        After reading a familiar story, students are asked to recall all the events in the book, and then how they affected the characters. Help students use descriptive word to determine outcomes (e.g., Mr. Bear didn't brush his teeth; he had to go to the dentist to have a tooth pulled). (Compensatory)

           

2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.

Braille Standard

Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs encountered in the grade two curriculum.

·         Use transcriber’s notes.

·        Use both hands in a coordinated fashion to access information simultaneously on two different pages (e.g., reading a graph or map with one hand and reading the accompanying key with the other hand; reading a question with one hand and maintaining the place on the question with that hand while using the other hand to locate the answer.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        When reviewing informational text materials, introduce students to a bar graph or chart either in print or in tactile formats. (Academic/Compensatory)

·         Students find the x and y axes of the graph or chart. (Academic/Compensatory)

·         Students locate and comprehend the legend. (Academic/Compensatory)

·         Students locate one piece of information from the graph or chart. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        As a group, create a graph or chart from the details of a story or article. (Academic/Compensatory)

 

2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

Braille Standard

Follow two step brailled directions.

SEACO

Standard 9 - Follow two-step written instructions.

·        Follow schedule(s) (FPI 9.2)

·        Follow community symbol directions (FPI 9.3)

·        Read and demonstrate simple action words (FPI 9.4)

·        Follow written or pictorial recipe (FPI 2.5)

CSB Activities

·        Follow simple recipes (DLS)

·        Create a treasure hunt where students have to follow at least two-step directions in print, braille, or by listening to directions (Compensatory/Social)

·        Follow instructions for completing an art project (Compensatory/R&L)

·        Follow written or brailled instructions for completing a classroom job or work task (Compensatory/Career)

           

 3.0. Literary Response and Analysis

 Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of

 children’s literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

 

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented

by different authors.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·        After reading two stories from two different authors about a similar topic, ask students to compare the settings and characters. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        After reading two stories from two different authors about different topics have students compare the settings and the characters. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask student to define or describe the plot in a story. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask students to compare the plots from two different stories written by different authors. (Academic/Compensatory)

           

3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or  reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

·        Identify next event in a sequence (FPI 23.2)

CSB Activities

·        Have students share experiences or events that they have encountered. Ask students to sequence the events of the experience identifying beginning, middle, and end. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Have students develop a different ending for their experience and discuss the outcome. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Read Choose Your Own Adventure Stories and discuss the impact of the different endings. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Make up different endings for favorite stories and discuss the meaning. (Compensatory/Social)

 

 3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·        Compare and contrast fairy tales and fables from different cultures. (Academic/Social)

·        Read or listen to stories from different cultures that have a similar theme (Compensatory)

·        Have students compare and contrast family customs for holiday celebrations and foods.(DLS/Compensatory)

·        Take field trips to places of cultural heritage and experience the foods, language, music, and any other aspect of the culture. (O&M/DLS)

 

3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·        Students clap the rhythm of familiar nursery rhymes and other simple poems (Compensatory)

·        After reading a rhyming poem to students, they identify the rhyming words (Compensatory)

·        Students create their own poems using rhyming words (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Read a wide variety of children’s poetry and have children choose a favorite to memorize. (Academic/Compensatory)

 

4.0 Mechanics of Braille Reading

In grade one, the students learn to use both hands together and independently to read Braille.  In grade two, they use their hands more efficiently in an independent yet coordinated manner.

            4.1 Turn the page with the left hand while the right hand finds the top of            the next page. 

            4.2 Skim the page quickly to locate specific headings and information

 

Writing

           

1.0 Writing Strategies

 Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

 

Organization and Focus

1.1  Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus.

Braille Standard:

Same as state content standard as written above.          

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        After reading a story or engaging in a special event or activity, have students create an experience story (paragraph) orally as the teacher records the students' ideas in a logical sequence. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Have students write, braille, or orally record a paragraph about a specific topic, event, or experience using a model. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Have students write, braille, or orally record a paragraph about a specific topic, event, or experience without a model and seeping focus. (Academic/Compensatory)

          

Penmanship/Braille Writing

 

1.2  Create readable documents with legible handwriting.

Braille Standard

Create readable documents with legible braille

SEACO

 ELA Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences appropriately

ELA Standard 16- Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology

CSB Activities

 

1.3  Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, and atlas).

Braille Standard

Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, and atlas) and explore brailled samples.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

         

Evaluation and Revision

 

1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

·        After writing/brailling an experience story as a class, assist students in the revising process by asking them to determine if the sequence is correct. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        After writing/brailling an experience story as a class, assist students in the revising process by asking them to determine if sentences begin with a capitol and end with a punctuation mark/sign. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Have students work in pairs to assist each other with more descriptive detail in their stories. (Compensatory/Social)

         

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

 

Using the writing strategies of grade two, students:

 

2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences. Move through a logical sequence of events. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

  

2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation,

body, closing, and signature.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

          

Written and Oral English Language Conventions

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have

been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking             because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

 

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English             conventions appropriate to this grade level.

 

Sentence Structure

1.1  Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

           

1.2  Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

           

Grammar

 

1.3  Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Punctuation

 

1.4  Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above..

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

           

1.5  Use quotation marks correctly.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Capitalization

 

1.6  Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

Spelling

 

1.7  Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why).

Braille Standard

Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why), writing the words in contracted and uncontracted Braille.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.8  Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r- controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above..

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

 Listening and Speaking

 

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

 Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

 

Comprehension

 

1.1  Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.2  Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

ELA Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification and understanding

CSB Activities

 

1.3  Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.4  Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

 Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

 

1.5  Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.

Braille Standard

Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.

SEACO

ELA Standard 21 -Stay on topic when speaking.

·        Interact with person or group regarding specific topic (FPI 21.2)

·        Participate in communicative dialogue with person or group on specific topic

CSB Activities

           

1.6  Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.7  Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

ELA Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

CSB Activities

 

1.8  Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

1.9  Report on a topic with supportive facts and details.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

 

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking

Standard 1.0.

 

Using the speaking strategies of grade two outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

 

2.1 Recount experiences or present stories: Move through a logical sequence of events. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, and setting).

Braille Standard

SEACO

ELA Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

CSB Activities

Same as ELA Standard & Braille Standard

           

2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.

Braille Standard

Face the listener when reporting on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.

SEACO:  N/A

CSB Activities

: Same as ELA Standard & Braille Standard

               

 

ACSA Selected Standards for Grade Two

Reading

Word Analysis, Fluency, Voc. Dev.

Decoding and Word Recognition

            2.1.1

            2.1.2

            2.1.3

            2.1.5

            2.1.6

Vocabulary and Concept Development

            2.1.7

            2.1.9

Reading Comprehension                            

            2.2.4

            2.2.5

            2.2.6

            2.2.8

Writing

Writing Strategies

            2.1.1

Research

            2.1.3

Evaluation and Revision

            2.1.4

Written and Oral English language Conventions

Sentence Structure  

            2.1.1

Capitalization

            2.1.6

Spelling

            2.1.7

            2.1.8