GRADE FOUR

 

English/Language Arts Standards

Reading

Braille: Materials must be made available in Braille, to Braille readers in a timely manner.

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development

Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and corresponding braille code and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

 

Word Recognition
1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above.

SEACO

Standard 5- Read simple one-syllable and high frequency words

·        identify name (FPI 5.1)

·        identify signs/symbols (FPI 5.2)

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level texts and recommended literature, student break into small groups and read aloud to one another focusing on pacing, fluidity, and intonation (Academic/Social)

·        Have students read a favorite book or story to younger students in another class (Academic/Social)

·        Each day select a student to read a short chapter in a novel selected by the entire class aloud to others. (Academic/Social)

 

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meaning of words and phrases.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standards as written above.

SEACO

Standard 4 - Classify grade-appropriate categories of words

·        identify objects by function (FPI 4.1)

·        sort objects by function/use (FPI 4.2)

·        identify picture (tactile symbol) by function (FPI 4.3)

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level textbooks in reading, language arts, and social studies have students locate words in stories that have foreign origins, and discuss their meaning. (Academic/Social)

·        Explain and identify common idioms used in the English language. After selecting grade-level reading materials, encourage students to find idioms within the text materials to determine word or phrase meanings. (Academic/Social)

·        Ask students to interview their family members to determine idioms and common phrases that may be used within the family. (Academic/Social)

·        Identify foreign greetings or sayings found in literature (Social)

 

1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 4 - Classify grade-appropriate categories of words

·        identify objects by function (FPI 4.1)

·        sort objects by function/use (FPI 4.2)

·        identify picture (tactile symbol) by function (FPI 4.3)

CSB Activities

·        Present students with a list of root words, and have them determine their meaning without the use of a dictionary. Then have the students use the dictionary to determine the exact meaning of the root word. (Academic)

·        During a shopping trip with students ask them to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by gathering clues from the root word or the word’s origin. (Compensatory/Social)

·        When students order food from a menu , ask them to identify the root word (e.g., ensalada is the same as salad, or spaghettini is the same as spaghetti) (Compensatory)

 

1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., international).
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO:

Standard 4 - Classify grade-appropriate categories of words

·        identify objects by function (FPI 4.1)

·        sort objects by function/use (FPI 4.2)

·        identify picture ( tactile symbols ) by function (FPI 4.3)

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level reading and literature texts have students compile a list of common affixes (prefixes and suffixes) derived from Greek and Latin. Encourage students to use the dictionary to help them locate prefixes and suffixes. (Academic/Braille/VE)

·        Provide students with a list of common phrases that come from Greek and Latin languages. Have students use the dictionary to locate word meaning to determine the meaning of the phrase and its use. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Use a large print o tactile map to locate Italy and Greece. Discuss the history of how Latin and Greek became widespread languages. (Compensatory/VE)

·        Help students to compile a list of common household items that  from Greek or Latin origins. (Compensatory/DLS)

·        Help students to compile a list of career development words that have Greek or Latin origins. (CompensatoryVocational)

·        Help students to compile a list of food words that have Greek or Latin origins. (Compensatory/DLS)

 

1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.

Braille Standard

Use a thesaurus in an accessible format to determine related words and concepts.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Create a game where students present words they have used in their writing or reading that are interesting or unusual. After compiling a list, have each student use the thesaurus to find a word with a similar meaning. (Academic/Social/Technology)

·        Explain the function of a thesaurus. (Academic)

·        During a career or vocational activity have students compile a list of words related to employment. With the help of the teacher or teaching assistant, find words with similar meanings (e.g., employment-work, application-form, resume-work experiences. (Compensatory/Vocational)

 

1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.

Braille Standard

Same as state standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 3 - Understand that printed materials provide information

·        identify environmental symbols/signs/cues (FPI 3.1)

·        match symbol/cue to activity/function (FPI 3.2)

·        follow list/choice schedule of activities (FPI 3.3)

CSB Activities

·        During cooking activities in class have students create a list of  words that have multiple meanings (e.g., beef and beat, scalloped potatoes and scalloped edges) (Compensatory/DLS)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

2.0 Reading Comprehension

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).

The grade-level appropriate materials must be made available in braille to braille readers in a timely manner


Structural Features of Informational Materials


2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

 

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text


2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information, personal enjoyment).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 6 - Match oral words to printed words

·        identify written name when expressed by another (FPI 6.1)

·        identify common signs/labels when expressed by another (FPI 6.2)

·        identify daily activities/schedule when expressed by another (FPI 6.3)

CSB Activities

                             


2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues.

Braille Standard
Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations (adapted) or transcriber's note, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues.

SEACO

Standard 8/9 - Follow one-step written instructions/ Follow two-step written instructions

·        follow schedule(s) (FPI 8.2/9.2)

·        follow community symbol directions (FPI 8.3/9.3)

·        follow written or pictorial recipe (FPI 8.5/9.5)

CSB Activities

·        Discuss multiple ways predictions are made through the use of textual materials. (Academic/Braille)

·        After reading grade-level texts or literature, have student predict the conclusion of a story by using information gathered from the story. Encourage students to use clues from the title, the text itself, pictures, or transcriber's notes.  (Compensatory/Academic/Braille)

·        When reading news magazines or specific news articles, encourage students to predict the outcome of an issue by citing quotes from the text as a predictive indicator. (Academic)

·        During a current events activity, read and discuss newspaper articles. Encourage students to predict the outcome of the story by reviewing the title of the news story or from passages within the news story. (Compensatory)

·        Read and discuss work-related scenarios to students. Ask students to predict the outcome of the scenario by using the information from the story, or their own personal experiences. (Vocational)

·        During an orientation and mobility lesson provide students with a set of directions to a spot on campus. Ask students to predict their destination through the use of context clues or pictures. (O&M)

 

2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 10 - Ask and answer questions about essential elements of a text

·        identify basic elements of a text (FPI 10.1)

·        respond to simple questions about text (FPI 10.2)

·        recall events/story (FPI 10.3)

·        answer "Wh" questions about materials read (FPI 10.4)

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level texts and literature ask students to evaluate or critique a new story or article by using information from texts or articles familiar to the students. (Academic)

·        During a social studies lesson about California history, ask students to gather information from reading texts or literature that they have used to confirm or refute the ideas portrayed in the social studies lesson. (Academic)

·        When students are creating a shopping list to purchase food for cooking, use examples of previous shopping trips where too much or too little was purchased to complete a recipe, (e.g. purchasing a gallon of milk when only one cup was needed to make the recipe). (DLS)

·        Have students use prior knowledge when completing their own laundry (e.g. separating colored clothing from white clothing) (DLS)

·        When discussing current events with students, ask students to relate a prior news item or experience that was similar to the present articles. (Compensatory/Social)

 

2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.
Braille Standard

Same as state standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 10 - Ask and answer questions about essential elements of a text

·        identify basic elements of a text (FPI 10.1)

·        respond to simple questions about text (FPI 10.2)

·        recall events/story (FPI 10.3)

·        answer "Wh" questions about materials read (FPI 10.4)

CSB Activities

·        After reading news magazines (Weekly Reader or Scholastic News) about state or national elections, have students generate a list of statements from the texts that compare and contrast the issues. (Academic)

·        As part of the Nutrition Initiative, encourage students to read about "eating healthy". Have students demonstrate through reading texts varying perspectives on good nutrition. (Academic/DLS)

·        Discuss the issue of allowing junk food in schools by reading news articles or listening to the news. Generate a list of pros and cons for allowing junk food at school. (DLS)

·        Read or listen to news articles about the health issues about smoking. Have students compare and contrast their views about smoking by using the information from the news articles. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Discuss disclosing information about each student's visual impairment.  Compare and contrast how much information they would provide to another person. (VE/Social)

 

2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 11 - Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influences of each

·        sequence story line (FPI 11.1)

·        predict what will happen next (FPI 11.2)

·        determine cause by given effect, or effect by given cause (FPI 11.3)

CSB Activities

 

2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).

Braille Standard

Follow multiple-instructions in a brailled basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).

SEACO

Standard 8/9 - Follow one-step written instructions/ Follow two-step written instructions

·        follow schedule(s) (FPI 8.2/9.2)

·        follow community symbol directions (FPI 8.3/9.3)

·        follow written or pictorial recipe (FPI 8.5/9.5)

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

·        In Braille or Technology class, follow multiple- step directions to use a braille note taking device. (Braille/Technology)

·        During a hands-on science lesson, follow directions to complete a science experiment. (Academic)

·        Follow written /brailled/auditory directions to complete a raised map of California independently. (Compensatory/Braille/Academic)

·        In Braille or Technology class, follow multiple-step directions to use a braille note-taking device. (Braille/Technology)

·        During a cooking activity, follow the steps in a recipe to cook a snack or a meal. (DLS)

·        At a work site, follow written/brailled/auditory steps in completing a specific job. (Vocational)

·        Follow a list or written/brailled/auditory directions to get from one campus destination to another, or from one community destination to another. (O&M)

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten through Grade Eight illustrates the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

 

Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

·        Introduce students to a variety of imaginative literary forms including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales by having students read or listen to them. (Academic/Social)

·        After reading myths and legends from a grade-level reading text or literature, discuss the differences in form and function. (Academic/Braille)

·        Discuss the structure of a fable and its message. (Academic/Social)

·        Discuss a variety of fairy tales. Have students select their favorite fairy tale. Discuss how fairy tales are structured. (Academic)

·        Read fables to students and discuss their moral value. Relate the story endings to the students' experiences. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Read, discuss, and demonstrate that fairy tales and fantasies like Harry Potter are not real, but pretend. Discuss situations in students' lives that are real, and contrast it with pretend activities. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Use holidays and special events to discuss a variety of cultures and customs. Share legends or myths from different cultures. Discuss how the legend or myth got started. (R&L)

 

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text


3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on future actions.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 11 - Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each

·        Sequence story line (FPI 11.1)

·        predict what will happen next when given a short story or a social situation (FPI 11.2)

·        determine cause by given effect, or determine effect by given cause (FPI 11.3)

CSB Activities

·        After reading a section from a grade-level reading text or literature, each student identifies the events that make up the plot. (Academic/Braille)

·        In a class discussion ask students to identify the cause or causes of the story's events, and determine how the events influence the outcome of the story. (Academic/Social)

·        Given a specific work situation or social situation ask students to determine the events that caused a specific outcome. (Vocational/Social)

·        Develop problem-solving scenarios for work situations, social situations, or living situations where students must choose between specific outcomes.  After reading the scenario, ask students to select the correct outcome. Ask students to explain why they picked a specific outcome. (Vocational/Social/DLS)

 

3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character's traits and motivations to determine the causes for that character's actions.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 13 - Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

·        identify common signs and labels (FPI 13.1)

·        compile shopping list from recipe (FPI 13.2)

·        make own transportation plan (FPI 13.4)

CSB Activities

·        After reading a story from grade-level text or literature, each student selects a favorite character, and lists the positive and negative traits of the character. Each student demonstrates how the character's actions affected the story and its conclusion by giving a brief oral presentation. (Academic)

·        After reading a selected story from a text, discuss with students how the setting may impact the outcome. (Academic)

·        During FYI or Life After CSB have each student list his/her positive and negative personal traits. Make a group list, and discuss how each behavior might affect others. (Social/Compensatory)

·        Discuss how emotions impact others in work and social situations. Ask each student to select an emotion or feeling they have experienced. Ask students to determine a situation where they exhibited appropriate use of the emotion and when they did not use the emotion effectively. Discuss the impact. (Vocational/Social)

 

3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales).
Braille Standard

Same as state standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Read and review tales from different cultures. Discuss how these stories have similarities even though they are representative of diverse backgrounds and customs. (Academic)

·        Explore a variety of tales about the winter holidays. Discuss how these stories describe a range of customs and beliefs. Compare and contrast similarities and differences. (Academic/R&L)

·        Study the customs, beliefs, language, food, and special events from a variety of countries and cultures. (Social/DLS)

·        Read stories, tales, legends, and myths from a variety of cultures. Discuss how the literature is similar or different. (Social/R&L)

·        Teach students phrases from different cultures, and compare similarities across languages (e.g., Spanish and Italian) (Compensatory)

 

3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level reading texts or literature define simile, and provide examples from texts. Have students develop a list of similes. (Academic)

·        After reading grade-level texts or literature describe the concept of a metaphor, and provide examples. Ask students to find metaphors in a favorite book. (Acabemic/Braille)

·        After reading grade-level texts or literature, define and describe a hyperbole, and provide examples. Ask students to find a hyperbole from a favorite story they have read. (Academic/Braille)

·        After reading grade-level texts or literature, explain how personification is used in literature and provide examples. Ask students to find an example of personification in a favorite story they have read. (Academic/Braille)

 

Writing

1.0 Writing Strategies

Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

 

Organization and Focus


1.1 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view based upon purpose, audience, length, and format requirements.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 14 - Write from left to right, and from top to bottom

·        demonstrates left-to-right and top-to-bottom sequencing in a variety of activities (FPI 14.1)

·        hold writing implement (FPI 14.2)

·        trace/copy purposeful marks on paper (FPI 14.4)

·        produce shapes, letters, numerals (FPI 14.5)

·        link symbols in a meaningful sequence (e.g., pictures, letters, words) (FPI 14.6)

·        produce name (FPI  14.7)

CSB Activities

 

1.2 Create multiple-paragraph compositions:

  1. Provide an introductory paragraph.
  2. Establish and support a central idea with a topic sentence at or near the beginning of the first paragraph.
  3. Include supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations.
  4. Conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the points.
  5. Use correct indention.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce name (FPI 15.1)

·        produce simple words (e.g., shopping list) (FPI 15.2)

·        use appropriate letter size in the document (FPI 15.3)

·        produce 2-to-3-word phrase (address, directions, need or want) (FPI 15.4)

CSB Activities

 

1.3 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce name (FPI 15.1)

·        produce simple words (e.g., shopping list) (FPI 15.2)

·        use appropriate letter size in the document (FPI 15.3)

            produce 2-to-3-word phrase (address, directions, need or want) (FPI 15.4)
CSB Activities

·        Discuss effective writing strategies with students when composing an informational paragraph or essay like cause and effect or similarities and differences. (Academic)

·        When writing a paragraph or essay about factual events, demonstrate how placing events in chronological order can assist with organization and structure. (Academic)

·        Demonstrate to students how posing and answering questions within a paragraph or essay is an effective writing strategy. (Academic)

 

Penmanship


1.4 Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic.

Braille Standard

Write/Braille fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italic, using a braillewriter.

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce name (FPI 15.1)

·        produce simple words (e.g., shopping list) (FPI 15.2)

·        use appropriate letter size in the document (FPI 15.3)

            produce 2-to-3-word phrase (address, directions, need or want) (FPI 15.4)
CSB Activities

·        Write a variety of documents using a braille writer or a braille note taking device. (Academic)

·        Teach students to develop a legible and repeatable signature. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Teach visual learners to write in cursive with established teaching methods. (VE/Academic)

 

Research and Technology


1.5 Quote or paraphrase information sources, citing them appropriately.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO
Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

·        Demonstrate the differences between paraphrasing information and quoting information. Provide examples from familiar texts. (Academic)

·        Explore the school library for materials that can be used for gathering research information. (Academic)

·        Ask each student to select a topic they wish to research. Ask them to find quotes from research texts. Demonstrate and discuss how quoted information should be cited. (Academic)

·        Give each student quoted information from a text and ask them to orally paraphrase the information. (Academic)

·        During current events, read news articles, and point out information that is quoted. Explain what is meant by quoting a person, and provide examples. (Compensatory)

·        Introduce students to famous quotes (e.g., Helen Keller, Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King) (Compensatory/Social)

·        Explain the concept of paraphrasing versus quoting. (Compensatory/Social)

 

1.6 Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features (e.g., prefaces, appendixes).

Braille Standard

Locate information in reference texts by using organizational features and a variety of appropriate access tools; include braille, optical, recorded, and electronic aids (e.g., prefaces, appendixes).

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

·        Locate and use the table of contents to find chapter titles and page numbers. (Academic)

·        Use the index at the back of a reference book to locate information. (Academic)

·        Locate the appendices at the end of a text, and determine if the information is useful for a specific report. (Academic)

 

1.7 Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, online information) as an aid to writing.

Braille Standard

Use various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, card catalog, encyclopedia, and online information) and a variety of appropriate access tools, including braille, optical, recorded, and electronic tools, as an aid to writing.

SEACO

Standard 12 - Identify the structural features of popular media and use the features to obtain information.

CSB Activities

·        Demonstrate the use of various print/braille dictionaries to locate word definitions and word derivations. (Academic/Braille)

·        Use a braille or on-line encyclopedia to find information. (Braille/Technology)     

·        Visit the school library to learn about reference materials/systems. (Academic)

·        Use on-line search engines (Google) to locate resource information (Technology)

·        Use a telephone directory like the school's telephone list. (Academic)

·        Use a braille note taking device to locate important dates and events. (Compensatory/Braille)


1.8 Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use those print materials.

Braille Standard

Understand the organization of almanacs, newspapers, and periodicals and how to use those print materials by using braille samples.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Locate the various sections of a newspaper by exploring on-line newspapers or phone in news lines (e.g., News Line for the Blind). (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Locate and understand the function of the following sections of a news paper: the front page, local and national news, the sports section, movie and entertainments listings, and the weather. (Academic)

·        Understand and use an almanac to find information about the weather or other useful information. (Academic)

·        Read employment/job related signs. (Vocational)

·        Locate the various sections of a newspaper including, the want ads for jobs, the front page, the sports section, and the movie listings. (Academic/Social)

·        Read and use simple maps during O&M lessons. (O&M)

·        Use public transportation schedules/directions with assistance. (O&M/DLS)

            

1.9 Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive).

Braille Standard

Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology (e.g., cursor, software, memory, disk drive, hard drive, screen reader, scanner, embosser, braille translation software).

a.    Demonstrate basic electronic notetaking skills (See Appendix A. Notetaker Curriculum Outline.

SEACO

Standard 16 - Demonstrate basic keyboarding skills and familiarity with computer terminology.

·        indicate awareness of computer (FPI 16.1)

·        use an input device for cause and effect (FPI 16.2)

·        make choices using single/multiple input device(s) (FPI 16.3)

·        utilize keyboard/device to access software (FPI 16.4)

·        utilize keyboard/device for writing functions (FPI 16.5)

CSB Activities

·        Demonstrate the ability to turn the computer on and off. (Academic/Technology)

·        Can locate the keyboard. (Academic/Technology)

·        Locates the home row. (Academic/Technology)

·        Uses Talking Typer or other software to learn and improve keyboarding skills. (Technology)

·        Locates and uses function keys to open or close a file, change or delete information typed, and save a file. (Technology)

·        Uses the computer to write, letters, paragraphs, stories, and/or essays. (Technology)

·        Understands the following terminology: cursor, disk, function keys, arrow keys, software, USB drive, hard drive, desktop. (Technology)

·        Writes letters and simple paragraphs using the keyboard. (Academic)

·        Uses the keyboard to making shopping lists. (DLS)

·        Uses the keyboard to create a resource file of important phone numbers and addresses. (Social/DLS)

 

Evaluation and Revision


1.10 Edit and revise selected drafts to improve coherence and progression by adding, deleting, consolidating, and rearranging text.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        After students compose letters, paragraphs, original stories, and essays, ask students to initially proofread their own document for spelling errors, grammar errors, and for clarity. (Academic)

·        Encourage students to edit and make changes to their own work. (Academic)

·        Ask students to partner with another student, trade documents, and proof and critique the partner's document. Encourage each student to provide verbal feedback about the written document prior to editing. (Academic/Social)

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade four outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write narratives:

a. Relate ideas, observations, or recollections of an event or experience.

b. Provide a context to enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience.

c. Use concrete sensory details.

d. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce name (FPI 15.1)

·        produce simple words (e.g., shopping list) (FPI 15.2)

·        use appropriate letter size in the document (FPI 15.3)

·        produce 2- to 3-word phrases (address, directions, need or want)

CSB Activities

 

2.2 Write responses to literature:

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the literary work.
  2. Support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce 2- to 3-word phrases (address, directions, need or want)

CSB Activities

·        Select an appropriate story or piece of literature to read to the class, explaining concepts or word meanings throughout the reading experience. (Compensatory)

·        After each chapter is read, ask students to discuss what they liked or did not like about the story, the characters, or the setting. Ask students to relate the story to their own experiences. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Ask students to respond in writing or through dictation by writing a sentence to describe their opinions. (Compensatory)

 

2.3 Write information reports:

  1. Frame a central question about an issue or situation.
  2. Include facts and details for focus.
  3. Draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other media sources).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 15 - Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences.

·        produce name (FPI 15.1)

·        produce simple words (e.g., shopping list) (FPI 15.2)

·        use appropriate letter size in the document (FPI 15.3)

·        produce 2- to 3-word phrases (address, directions, need or want)

CSB Activities

·        Assist students to select a specific informational topic for a report with specific questions that need to be answered. (Academic)

·        Generate a list of facts pertaining to the report topic by using reference materials from the library including encyclopedias, news articles, and magazines. (Academic)

·        Assist students in using the Internet to find information about a specific topic. (Academic/Technology)

·        After gathering information, discuss how to sequence information in a structured manner. (Academic)

·        Ask students to write an informational report about the cause of their visual impairment. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask students to write an informational report about a favorite pet. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        With assistance, ask students to locate information about their visual impairment using the Internet. (Social/Technology)

·        With assistance, ask students to locate information about a specific job using the Internet. (Technology/Vocational)

·        Using materials from the library or on-line search engines, ask students to find a recipe they wish to prepare. (Technology/DLS)

·        Ask students to write or dictate an informational letter about a specific job. (Vocational)

·        Ask students to write or dictate a letter to AC Transit/BART/paratransit to make a complaint about services, or to thank these agencies for good service. (Compensatory/DLS)

 

2.4 Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        After reading grade-level literature and texts, ask students to summarize the story or content selection making sure that the student selects the main ideas found in the story. (Academic)

·        After reading a news article to the students about the election or other political events, ask students to write a summary paragraph summarizing the key points in the article. (Academic)

·        After reading a section of the encyclopedia for an informational report, assist students to summarize the main ideas or key points found in the selection. (Academic)

·        After reading a chapter from a literature book, ask students as a class to dictate the main ideas found in the book chapter. (Compensatory)

·        After reading a news article during current events, ask students to summarize the information by providing only the most important events that occurred. (Compensatory)

·        After reading directions for the operation of a household appliance, ask the students to provide the main steps in the direction process. (Compensatory/DLS)

 

3.0 Mechanics of the Slate and Stylus

Students are efficient in using the slate/stylus strategies of grade three outlined in Writing Standard 3.0, Mechanics of the Slate and Stylus, and demonstrate correct braille writing skills to write short paragraphs.

 

3.1 Braille contractions and signs with legible dots, remove paper, check for accuracy, and replace the paper correctly in the slate.

 

3.2 Braille short sentences from dictation.

 

3.3 Mentally compose and braille a sentence.

 

3.4 Braille a short paragraph from dictation, up to four slate rows in length.

 

3.5 Reposition the slate further down the paper after all four rows in one position are filled.

 

3.6 Correct errors neatly.

Written and Oral English Language Conventions

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

 

Sentence Structure


1.1 Use simple and compound sentences in writing and speaking.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 17 - Understand and follow one- and two-step oral directions.

·        orient in direction of the speaker (FPI 17.1)

·        follow simple directions (FPI 17.2)

·        perform action to comply with 1- or 2-step directions (FPI 17.3)

CSB Activities

 

1.2 Combine short, related sentences with appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO:

Standard 17 - Understand and follow one- and two-step oral directions.

·        orient in direction of the speaker (FPI 17.1)

·        follow simple directions (FPI 17.2)

·        perform action to comply with 1- or 2-step directions (FPI 17.3)

CSB Activities

·        Introduce students to the use of appositives, participial phrases, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases when combining two sentences in the writing process. (Academic)

·        Determine understanding of the use of these parts of speech, ask students to provide examples of how adjectives and adverbs would be used to connect two related sentences. (Academic)

·        Demonstrate understanding by having students use appositives, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases in sentences. (Academic)

·        Ask students to write/braille/ or dictate sentences using parts of speech to connect ideas. (Academic)

·        Define and explain the use of an adjective and an adverb. (Compensatory)

·        When speaking or giving a speech, encourage students to use adjectives and adverbs to describe an event or experience. (Compensatory)

 

Grammar


1.3 Identify and use regular and irregular verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions in writing and speaking.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Define and describe the use of regular and irregular verbs in writing and in speaking. (Academic)

·        Ask students to demonstrate the correct use of adverbs, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions in writing and speaking by having them provide written and oral examples. (Academic)

·        Ask students to compose a paragraph in print/braille/dictated that uses verbs, adverbs, conjections, and prepositions correctly. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Ask students to make requests for transportation information using appropriate grammar. (O&M)

·        When students make a short speech, practice with them to determine if appropriate grammar is being used. (Compensatory)

·        When preparing for a job interview, practice verbal responses correcting the student's use of grammar. (Vocational)

 

Punctuation


1.4 Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case of nouns and in contractions.
Braille Standard

Same as state standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Discuss the purpose of using parentheses in writing. Provide examples from students' texts. (Academic)

·        Ask students to locate quotes within their text books. Discuss how commas are used within the quotes. (Academic)

·        Discuss the use of the apostrophe for contractions and possessive nouns by asking students to develop a list of common contractions, and a list of possessive nouns. (Academic)

·        Create a game where the students must change a noun to its passive form. (Academic/Social)

·        Discuss with students the difference between a braille contraction and a contraction used to shorten two words into one. (Compensatory)

·        Demonstrate how contractions are used in everyday speaking. Provide examples. (Compensatory)

 

1.5 Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to identify titles of documents.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Provide examples of book or story titles in braille or print for students to determine how quotes, underlining, or italics can be used. (Academic)

·        When students write reports, or list a title in a paragraph summary, they use quotes, underlining, or italics correctly.  (Academic)

·        When students use the computer for seeking information, ask them to determine if titles of stories or books are marked with quotation marks, underlined, or italicized. (Technology)

 

Capitalization


1.6 Capitalize names of magazines, newspapers, and works of art, musical compositions, organizations, and the first word in quotations when appropriate.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Discuss with students when capital letters are used: proper names, titles of books, first words in quotations, newspaper and magazine names, and musical compositions or art works. (Academic)

·        Provided with a list of books, magazines, newspapers, musical compositions, street names, etc., ask students to determine which names need capitalization. (Academic)

·        Student writes first and last name or initials using capitalization. (Compensatory)

·        Student writes parents' and siblings' names using capitalization. (Compensatory/Social)

·        Students use capitalization to write a street name. (Compensatory/O&M)

 

Spelling


1.7 Spell correctly roots, inflections, suffixes and prefixes, and syllable constructions.

Braille Standard

Use applicable braille rules when writing/spelling at the grade four levels.

SEACO: N/A

CSB Activities

·        Using grade-level texts, students demonstrate the use of correct spelling in paragraphs, essays, letters, and other documents. (Academic)

·        Use on-line, print or braille dictionaries to obtain correct spelling of words for a variety of writing opportunities. (Academic/Technology)

·        Complete applications and forms using correct spelling of personal information. (Vocational)

Listening and Speaking

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

 

Comprehension


1.1 Ask thoughtful questions and respond to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration in oral settings.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification and understanding

·        obtain help using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.1)

·        ask simple questions using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.2)

·        ask "Wh" questions for clarity using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations

CSB Activities

 

1.2 Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken messages and formal presentations.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 20 - Describe people, places, things, locations, and actions

·        describe differences in objects (e.g., size, color, shape) (FPI 20.1)

·        describe a person, place, or thing using two or more descriptors (FPI 20.4)

CSB Activities

 

1.3 Identify how language usages (e.g., sayings, expressions) reflect regions and cultures.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 19 - Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent sentence.

·        communicate information using 2- to 3-word phrases (e.g., gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations) (FPI 19.4)

·        communicate information by using complete sentences (e.g., gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations) (FPI 19.5)

CSB Activities

·        Ask students to share sayings and expressions from their own cultures. (Social)

·        Read or listen to stories from different cultures, and discuss the sayings or expressions that were used. (Social)

·        Make a list of slang words used in speaking by students, and ask each student to define each word's meaning. (Social)

 

1.4 Give precise directions and instructions.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 17 - Understand and follow one- and two-step oral directions

·        orient in the direction of the speaker (FPI 17.1)

·        follow simple directions (FPI 17.2)

CSB Activities


Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

1.5 Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener's understanding of important ideas and evidence.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 19- Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete coherent sentences.

·        communicate information using 2- to 3-word phrases (e.g., gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations) (FPI 19.4)

·        communicate information by using complete sentences (e.g., gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations) (FPI 19.5)

CSB Activities

·        When students write or orally present a book review, have students develop an introduction that describes the problem or provides the listener with information to understand the plot. (Academic)

·        After outlining the information in an essay, book review, or narrative report, ensure that students develop a conclusion that summarizes the points established throughout the narrative or oral presentation. (Academic)

·        As students design introductions or conclusions discuss effective presentation strategies like use of music, posters, power points, or other media to set the tone. (Academic)

1.6 Use traditional structures for conveying information (e.g., cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 18 - Listen attentively

·        respond to voice by stopping activity or going to source of sound (FPI 18.1)

·        attend to speaker for duration of the activity (FPI 18.2)

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

·        attend and respond to speaker (FPI 21.1)

·        interact with person or group regarding specific topic (FPI 21.2)

·        participate in communicative dialogue with person or group on specific topic (FPI 21.3)

CSB Activities

·        Discuss the concept of a transition when making a presentation and provide examples of transitions. (Academic)

·        As students plan a presentation, have them use strategies like posing a question, providing examples from their own lives that are similar or different from the presentation topic. (Academic)

·        Have students generate a power point presentation with auditory or pictorial illustrations. (Academic/Technology)

·        Discuss the importance of turn taking in social interactions. Have students practice turn taking by discussing a topic of interest. (Compensatory)

·        Practice interrupting a conversation by finding a "lull" in the conversation or discussion. Explain or define lull. (Social)


1.7 Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts.

Braille Standard
Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 18 - Listen attentively

·        respond to voice by stopping activity or going to source of sound (FPI 18.1)

·        attend to speaker for duration of the activity (FPI 18.2)

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

·        attend and respond to speaker (FPI 21.1)

·        interact with person or group regarding specific topic (FPI 21.2)

·        participate in communicative dialogue with person or group on specific topic (FPI 21.3)

CSB Activities

·        When delivering a formal presentation emphasize specific ideas or strategies by pausing before and after the idea is presented. (Academic)

·        Use ordinal numbers like first, second, or third to emphasize a number of points presented in a presentation. (Academic)

·        Use gestures to emphasize a specific point or idea (e.g., pointing an index finger to make a point, using a head nod to emphasize an idea) (Social)

·        During an interview or formal presentation, get the listener's attention by establishing direction of gaze. (Social)

·        Practice using greetings a phrases to get the listener's attention (e.g., Good afternoon, I'd like to get started now, Could I have your attention?) (Social/Compensatory)

 

1.8 Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify information.
Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 20 - Describe people, places, things, locations, and actions

·        describe a person, place, or thing using two or more descriptors (FPI 20.4)

·        share descriptive information about locations and actions (FPI 20.5)

CSB Activities

·        When delivering a formal presentation or speech provide examples of personal experiences related to sports, independent travel, or technology. (Academic)

·        When reporting on a book, relate personal anecdotes that may be similar to the main character in the story. (Academic/Social)

·        Provide students with opportunities to describe the use of a specific piece of technology, a cane technique, the steps taken to complete a recipe to other students. (Technology/O&M)

·        Ask students to share personal experiences or anecdotes that demonstrate independence, positive decision-making, or ways they have helped others. (Social/DLS)

·        During a mock interview have students share a personal experience that demonstrates responsibility, initiative, or independence. (Social)

 

1.9 Use volume, pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures appropriately to enhance meaning.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 18 - Listen attentively

·        respond to voice by stopping activity or going to source of sound (FPI 18.1)

·        attend to speaker for duration of the activity (FPI 18.2)

Standard 21 - Stay on topic when speaking.

·        attend and respond to speaker (FPI 21.1)

·        interact with person or group regarding specific topic (FPI 21.2)

·        participate in communicative dialogue with person or group on specific topic (FPI 21.3)

CSB Activities

·        When delivering formal presentations practice with students to use modulation of voice, tone of voice, vocal pitch, and use of pause to emphasize specific points or ideas. (Social)

·        Monitor/use smooth/rhythmic patterns for adequate fluency. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Monitor/use appropriate voice quality/pitch. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Monitor/use appropriate voice loudness level. (Academic/Compensatory)

·        Discuss how voice tone and pitch can influence social conversations. Provide example, and have students practice a variety of social scenarios. (Social)

·        Provide students with opportunities to have mock interviews. Provide feedback about voice tone and quality. (Social)

·        In a reading recital or assembly, have students practice delivering speeches or poems. When practicing, provide students with feedback about pacing, vocal expression, and pausing to make a specific point. (Social)

 

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral Media Communication
1.10 Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention on events and in forming opinions on issues.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 18 - Listen attentively

·        respond to voice by stopping activity or going to source of sound (FPI 18.1)

·        attend to speaker for duration of the activity (FPI 18.2)

CSB Activities

·        Read newspaper & magazine articles with students. Discuss how the writer's opinion might influence the reader by the choice of words used in the article or the perspective that is taken (fear, enthusiasm) (Academic)

·        Discuss how the media might influence a political election. For example, how do the media portray a candidate or influence a particular issue? (Academic)

·        View a news broadcast on television or listen to a news program on the radio. Discuss how the announcer describes certain issues or events (e.g., the news person may have a sad voice when describing the death of a political figure or a movie star). (Social)

·        Discuss how blind and visually impaired people are portrayed in the media. (Social)

·        Discuss how the media influences political elections or events (e.g. war, terrorist activities, hurricanes or earthquakes) (Social)

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking

Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade four outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Make narrative presentations: Relate ideas, observations, or recollections about an event or experience.

  1. Provide a context that enables the listener to imagine the circumstances of the event or experience.
  2. Provide insight into why the selected event or experience is memorable.

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification

·        ask simple questions using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.2)

·        ask "Wh" questions for for clarification using gestures, actions, voice output devices, or vocalizations (FPI 22.3)

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequences

CSB Activities

·        Ask students to recount a special event in their lives in an oral presentation. (Speaking)

·        Ask students to present a speech about being independent: what does it mean, and provide examples of independent activities they have performed. (Speaking/DLS)

·        Ask students to tell a story about a good friend. (Speaking/Social)

 

2.2 Make informational presentations:

  1. Frame a key question.
  2. Include facts and details that help listeners to focus.
  3. Incorporate more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, and television or radio reports).

Braille Standard

Same as state content standard as written above

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification

·        ask simple questions using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.2)

·        ask "Wh" questions for clarification using gestures, actions, voice output devices, or vocalizations (FPI 22.3)

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequences

CSB Activities

 

2.3 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
Braille Standard
Same as state content standard as stated above

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification

·        ask simple questions using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.2)

·        ask "Wh" questions for clarification using gestures, actions, voice output devices, or vocalizations (FPI 22.3)

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequences

CSB Activities

 

2.4 Recite brief poems (i.e., two or three stanzas), soliloquies, or dramatic dialogues, using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.

Braille Standard
Same as state content standard as stated above

SEACO

Standard 22 - Ask questions for clarification

·        ask simple questions using gestures, actions, voice output device, or vocalizations (FPI 22.2)

·        ask "Wh" questions for clarification using gestures, actions, voice output devices, or vocalizations (FPI 22.3)

Standard 23 - Recount experiences in a logical sequences

CSB Activities

 

 

ACSA Selected Standards for Grade Four

Reading

Word Analysis, Fluency, Voc. Dev.

Decoding and Word Recognition

            4.1.1

Vocabulary and Concept Development

            4.1.2

            4.1.3

            4.1.5

            4.1.6

Reading Comprehension                            

            4.2.3

            4.2.5

            4.2.6

            4.2.7  

Literary Response and Analysis

            4.3.2

            4.3.3

            4.3.4

Writing

Writing Strategies

            4.1.2

            4.1.3

Research and Technology

            4.1.5

            4.1.7

            4.1.8

            4.1.9

Evaluation and Revision

            4.1.10

Writing Applications

            4.2.3

Written and Oral English language Conventions

Sentence Structure  

            41.1

            4.1.2

Grammar

            4.1.3

Punctuation

            4.1.4

            4.1.5

Capitalization

            4.1.6

Spelling

            4.1.7